Microstructures and mechanical properties of a modified 9Cr ferritic-martensitic steel in the as-built condition after additive manufacturing


A newly developed nano-structured high-Mn 9Cr ferritic-martensitic (FM) steel designed for additive manufacturing (Additive-manufactured Nanostructured Alloy, ANA) was fabricated via the direct energy deposition method. The as-printed ANA2 showed tensile properties (strength and elongation) and Charpy impact toughness (upper-shelf energy and ductile-brittle transition temperature) comparable to oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Eurofer and PM2000. Compared with wrought P91, the as-built ANA2 showed significantly higher yield strength but inferior Charpy impact toughness and ductility. Microstructural characterization revealed uniformly distributed sub-micron pores, an extremely high dislocation density, and a high density of ultrafine nano-structured precipitates in the matrix. The microstructures indicated the dislocations as the dominant strengthening element and the ultrafine precipitates as the primary contribution to estimated irradiation sink density. This work demonstrates the ability to exploit the unique consolidation properties of additive manufacturing to fabricate steels which marry the benefits of both ODS alloys and conventionally processed FM steels.

In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, pp. 152742