Emulation of fast reactor irradiated T91 using dual ion beam irradiation


Dual ion irradiations using 5 MeV defocused Fe2+ ions and co-injected He2+ ions were conducted on a ferritic-martensitic steel alloy, T91, in the temperature range of 406 °C–570 °C over a damage range of 14.6–35 dpa followed by characterization of the microstructure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Dislocation loops were observed to increase in diameter and decrease in density with temperature until only network dislocations were observed at the highest temperatures of 520 °C and 570 °C. Swelling exhibited the expected bell-shaped trend with temperature following the number density of cavities, peaking at 460 °C and with a bimodal size distribution except at 520 °C and 570 °C. Nickel- and silicon-rich clusters formed under dual ion irradiations near the surface at all but the highest temperatures of 520 °C and 570 °C. Very little Cr and Si segregation was observed at lath boundaries while Ni enriched at all temperatures examined. Segregation of Cr and Ni appeared to saturate by 17 dpa, while Si enriched up to 35 dpa. The dislocation and cavity microstructures of dual ion irradiated T91 and T91 irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor matched extremely well using a temperature shift of +60–70 °C. However, segregation to grain boundaries and formation of nickel-silicon rich clusters were minimal in the dual ion irradiated T91 and less than that in T91 irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor.

In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, (527), pp. 151831, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.151831